Peer to peer sex chat room
For example, several studies have shown age-related increases across childhood and adolescence in neural response to peer evaluation in regions of this affective processing network, including the NAcc and insula, striatum, medial PFC and ventral ACC (Guyer , 2011a).
One study that compared response to social exclusion on the Cyberball task among early and middle adolescents and young adults found that activity in the sg ACC in response to exclusion was strongest among early adolescents compared with mid adolescents and adults, possibly suggesting a period of peak sg ACC reactivity to social rejection during early adolescence (Gunther Moor , 2011), potentially suggesting that adolescents are less effective at recruiting regulatory resources in response to social threat.
Sensitivity to social evaluation has been proposed as a potential marker or risk factor for depression, and has also been theorized to increase with pubertal maturation.
This study utilized an ecologically valid paradigm to test the hypothesis that adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) would show altered reactivity to peer rejection and acceptance relative to healthy controls in a network of ventral brain regions implicated in affective processing of social information.
During adolescence, normative changes in the social context along with maturational changes in neural and endocrine systems that influence processing of motivational and socio-affective information could contribute to increased sensitivity to social evaluation, creating a potential window of vulnerability for depression during adolescence.
Adolescents begin to spend more time with their peers and these peer relationships take on increased affective and motivational salience (Larson and Asmussen, 1991; Steinberg and Morris, 2001).
Yet, little is known about the neural response to social evaluation during adolescence in youth with depression, especially in clinical samples.
Existing research with depressed youth suggests that adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) show altered amygdala reactivity in response to threatening faces (Roberson-Nay , 2011), but neural response to rejection has not been investigated in clinically depressed adolescents.
Behavioral studies indicate that rejection from peers often precedes depressive symptoms (Nolan , 2003; Rudolph and Conley, 2005).For these reasons, there is a critical need for research that advances mechanistic understanding of normal and abnormal development of social and affective processes (and their neurobehavioral underpinnings) during adolescence, in ways that can inform early prevention and intervention approaches at this vulnerable time in the life course trajectory.Theorists have proposed that increased sensitivity to social rejection during adolescence may be one factor that can help to explain the increase in depression during the teen years (Prinstein and Aikins, 2004; Davey , 2012a).In particular, several studies of adolescents have implicated the subgenual ACC (sg ACC), as well as a larger ventral portion of the ACC, in responding to social exclusion and rejection (Masten , 2010).Emerging data from these studies is consistent with the idea that neural response to social evaluation may increase during adolescence.