Matthew underwood dating
After this defeat, the Romans undertook a comprehensive reform of their army and changed the basic tactical formation from the Greek-style phalanx armed with the hasta spear and the clipeus round shield to a more flexible three-line formation.The Hastati stood in the first line, the Principes in the second line and the Triarii at the third line.This heavy javelin, known as a Pilum (plural "pila"), was about two metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank, about 7 mm in diameter and 60 cm long, with pyramidal head, secured to a wooden shaft.The iron shank was either socketed or, more usually, widened to a flat tang .However, devices do exist to assist the javelin thrower in achieving greater distance, generally called spear-throwers.A warrior or soldier armed primarily with one or more javelins is a javelineer.
They also carried a curved sword, a club or a hatchet as a side-arm.
The word javelin comes from Middle English and it derives from Old French javelin, a diminutive of javelot, which meant spear.
The word javelot probably originated from one of the Celtic languages.
In History of Ancient Egypt: Volume 1 (1882), George Rawlinson depicts the javelin as an offensive weapon used by the Ancient Egyptian military.
It was lighter in weight than that used by other nations.
A pilum usually weighed between two and four kilograms, with the versions produced during the Empire being somewhat lighter.