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Fortunately, in recent years, such desire has led to an increased interest in other chemistries that employ metals poised to provide higher energy densities without compromising the safety of the battery.For example metals such as magnesium and aluminum were proposed [1,7].In fact, the gap between the energy storage needs and what state of the art systems are capable of providing is increasing.This ever increasing gap has been a persistent force that drove many of the innovations made over the last 40 years .Magnesium metal has been attracting an increased attention as it possesses higher volumetric capacities than lithium metal, i.e., 3832 m Ah cm for lithium.It may also provide an opportunity for battery cost reductions due to its natural abundance in the earth crust (5th most abundant element) [7,8].More importantly, despite the fact that magnesium metal is not competitive with lithium metal on both specific capacity (2205 m Ah g for lithium) and redox potential levels (−2.3 V compared to −3.0 V for Li vs NHE), the electrochemical processes related to its reversible plating/stripping have demonstrated the absence of dentrites formation which has thus far alleviated safety concerns related to employing it as a negative electrode in batteries .However, several technical challenges that hamper the commercialization of rechargeable magnesium batteries are currently present.
Nowadays, their usage as an integral part in several modern applications on a variable size scale is apparent, encompassing miniature and portable devices; such as in cell phones, laptops, medium scale; such as in hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) up to large scale stationary and grid applications [1,4].
Fortunately, critical technical advancements geared towards overcoming the existing hurdles are made continuosly [7,9].
These, along with past and future dedicated research efforts, would play a vital role in enabling the maturity and readiness of rechargeable magnesium battery technologies.
In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent developments made and offer our perspectives on how to overcome some of the remaining challenges.
Keywords: Fueled by an ever increasing demand for electrical energy to power the numerous aspects of modern human life, energy storage systems or batteries occupy a central role in driving the electrification of our societies .
Herein, a technical review of rechargeable magnesium batteries is provided with focus on the most recent scientific advancements.