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Having apertures much larger than the pupil of the human eye, telescopes permit the study of faint and distant objects.
In addition, sufficient radiant energy can be collected in short time intervals to permit rapid fluctuations in intensity to be detected.
Very Large Array (VLA), operated near Socorro, New Mexico, by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 27 movable radio dishes are set out along tracks that extend for nearly 21 km.The angular resolving power (or resolution) of a telescope is the smallest angle between close objects that can be seen clearly to be separate. For a telescope having an objective lens or mirror with diameter resolving powers; in practice, however, these are not attained for telescopes located on Earth’s surface, because atmospheric effects limit the practical resolution to about one arc second.Sophisticated computing programs can allow much-improved resolution, and the performance of telescopes on Earth can be improved through the use of adaptive optics, in which the surface of the mirror is adjusted rapidly to compensate for atmospheric turbulence that would otherwise distort the image.Accurate pointing and timing are required to permit the correlation of observations made with different instrument systems working in different wavelength intervals and located at places far apart.The radiation must be spectrally analyzed so that the processes responsible for radiation emission can be identified.
Further, with more energy collected, a spectrum can be greatly dispersed and examined in much greater detail.reflectors that use lenses or mirrors, respectively, for their main light-collecting elements (objectives).